PHEV ‘problems’ as WLTP pushes models over CO2 limits for incentives
Some vehicle manufacturers who offer plug-in hybrid
electric vehicles (PHEVs) are halting sales of the models in the wake of the
introduction of the Worldwide harmonised Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP),
the all-new vehicle emission and MPG testing protocol.
Under the new emissions testing regime, PHEVs are tested
differently than under the previous NEDC procedure. That means that the effect
of the fully-charged electric battery has been reduced, which has pushed
crucial carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions figures above 50g/km. That, in turn,
means they lose the tax benefits gifted to ultra-low emission vehicles in
certain European countries. In the UK, for example, that means higher vehicle
Excise Duty and company car benefit-in-kind tax.
As a result, says Autovista Group, which includes used
car bible Glass’s amongst its stable of publications, Volkswagen, Porsche and
Mercedes-Benz are amongst those that are weighing up the options, such as
fitting a bigger battery or dropping their ranges altogether.
Adding a larger capacity storage unit to the PHEV would
allow it to drop below the crucial CO2 target, according to Autovista Group.
However, the cost involved in doing that, including sourcing of the technology
and modifying vehicles to take the bigger unit and accept the charge and power
through various components, could prove to be too much in comparison to
discounts offered by governments and smaller sales compared to petrol vehicles.
What’s more, in Germany, many PHEV models tested under
WLTP, have fallen out of the category where they qualified for a €3,000
Volkswagen announced that half of its fleet was not
compliant with WLTP when the new targets launched at the beginning of September
and has since stated that its PHEV models are at the back of the queue.
The company has said it has stopped sales of the Passat
GTE, Europe’s second-best selling PHEV model, and would not offer it again
until at least July 2019 when the entire Passat range will be updated. The
company has also said the same of the Golf GTE.
Porsche has pulled sales of its plug-in hybrid Panamera
and Cayenne models. A spokesman was quoted as saying: “We will not start taking
orders again until the cars are built, the timing of which is not yet confirmed.”
Mercedes-Benz currently has no plug-in hybrids available
to order but will start selling them again within the next two months, starting
with the S-class and E-class models, with the C Class due next year. The
company has said that all would record under the 50g/km target.
However, Mitsubishi, the maker of Europe’s biggest
selling PHEV, the Outlander, has overhauled its model, announcing that it emits
46g/km. The new Outlander plug-in switched to a 2.4-litre petrol engine from a
2.0-litre and increased the size of the battery to 13.8kWh from 12kWh.
Volvo, the maker of the third-best-selling plug-in hybrid
vehicle with the XC60 crossover, sells its plug-in hybrids with WLTP
certification, but its vehicles are rated above 50g/km of CO2.
Germany’s VDA motoring authority highlights how tough the
WLTP is on PHEVs, with its website stating: “These vehicles complete the test
several times. They start up with a full battery. The cycle is repeated until
the battery is empty. The combustion engine operates for a longer time each
cycle. Emissions are measured with each cycle. This is followed by measurement
with an empty battery in which the drive energy originates solely from the
combustion engine and regenerative braking. The CO2 value to be determined is
then calculated as the ratio of the electrical range to the total range.”